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Summary

BRCA1 - ENST00000357654

Gene BRCA1 - ENSG00000012048 | ENSP00000350283 | ENST00000357654
Ensembl | RefSeq | UniProt
Location GRCh38 17:43044295-43125370 Ensembl UCSC
Description BRCA1, DNA repair associated

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that specifically mediates the formation of 'Lys-6'-linked polyubiquitin chains and plays a central role in DNA repair by facilitating cellular responses to DNA damage. It is unclear whether it also mediates the formation of other types of polyubiquitin chains. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity is required for its tumor suppressor function. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer coordinates a diverse range of cellular pathways such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and transcriptional regulation to maintain genomic stability. Regulates centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Required for normal cell cycle progression from G2 to mitosis. Required for appropriate cell cycle arrests after ionizing irradiation in both the S-phase and the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Involved in transcriptional regulation of P21 in response to DNA damage. Required for FANCD2 targeting to sites of DNA damage. May function as a transcriptional regulator. Inhibits lipid synthesis by binding to inactive phosphorylated ACACA and preventing its dephosphorylation. Contributes to homologous recombination repair (HRR) via its direct interaction with PALB2, fine-tunes recombinational repair partly through its modulatory role in the PALB2-dependent loading of BRCA2-RAD51 repair machinery at DNA breaks. Component of the BRCA1-RBBP8 complex which regulates CHEK1 activation and controls cell cycle G2/M checkpoints on DNA damage via BRCA1-mediated ubiquitination of RBBP8. Acts as a transcriptional activator

Condition(s)
  • Breast-ovarian cancer, familial, 1 (BROVCA1)

    A condition associated with familial predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries. Characteristic features in affected families are an early age of onset of breast cancer (often before age 50), increased chance of bilateral cancers (cancer that develop in both breasts, or both ovaries, independently), frequent occurrence of breast cancer among men, increased incidence of tumors of other specific organs, such as the prostate.
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for more than 80% of inherited breast-ovarian cancer. OMIM

    MedGen: C0027672 C1458155 C0677776 C0006142 C2676676 C1140680 C0678222 OrphaNet: 145 180250 227535 213500
  • Breast cancer (BC)

    A common malignancy originating from breast epithelial tissue. Breast neoplasms can be distinguished by their histologic pattern. Invasive ductal carcinoma is by far the most common type. Breast cancer is etiologically and genetically heterogeneous. Important genetic factors have been indicated by familial occurrence and bilateral involvement. Mutations at more than one locus can be involved in different families or even in the same case.
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Mutations in BRCA1 are thought to be responsible for 45% of inherited breast cancer. Moreover, BRCA1 carriers have a 4-fold increased risk of colon cancer, whereas male carriers face a 3-fold increased risk of prostate cancer. Cells lacking BRCA1 show defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination. OMIM

    MedGen: C0678222 C0006142 C0677776 C1458155 OrphaNet: 145 227535 180250
  • Fanconi anemia, complementation group S (FANCS)

    A form of Fanconi anemia, a disorder affecting all bone marrow elements and resulting in anemia, leukopenia and thrombopenia. It is associated with cardiac, renal and limb malformations, dermal pigmentary changes, and a predisposition to the development of malignancies. At the cellular level it is associated with hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, chromosomal instability (increased chromosome breakage) and defective DNA repair.
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. OMIM

    MedGen: C2676676 C1140680 C0027672
  • Pancreatic cancer 4 (PNCA4)

    A malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Tumors can arise from both the exocrine and endocrine portions of the pancreas, but 95% of them develop from the exocrine portion, including the ductal epithelium, acinar cells, connective tissue, and lymphatic tissue.
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. OMIM

    MedGen: C0027672
  • Ovarian cancer (OC)

    The term ovarian cancer defines malignancies originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian tumors have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease.
    Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. OMIM

    MedGen: C0919267 OrphaNet: 145
PDB and PDB position 4y2g ~> 1706 (Explore)
gnomAD Exome Allele Frequency: 4.774371e-05
Genome Allele Frequency: 0.0001273642
gnomAD
Pathogenicity benign according to VKGL
Literature for His201Tyr in HDAC8 2 papers were found describing relevant variants in this protein (Explore)
Literature for similar variants in homologous proteins Not present

Literature

Literature for Gly1706Ala in BRCA1

Literature available for this variant:

We report the analysis of altogether 1050 suspected hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) families, 524 fully screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and 526 tested only for the most common mutations. Of the 119 families with pathogenic mutations, 40 (33.6%) had the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu rearrangement and 15 (12.6%) the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation, the former being specific of Portuguese ancestry and the latter showing a founder effect in Portugal. Interestingly, the two most common mutations were found in a significant proportion of the HBOC families with an a priori BRCAPRO mutation probability <10%. We recommend that all suspected HBOC families from Portugal or with Portuguese ancestry, even those fulfilling moderately stringent clinical-criteria for genetic testing, should be specifically analyzed for the two most common BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations, and we here present a simple method for this first tier test. Screening of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 should subsequently be offered to those families with a mutation probability ≥10% if none of those founder mutations are found.
BACKGROUND: The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. METHODS: To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. RESULTS: Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71%) patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling.
UNLABELLED: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers, and therefore sequence analysis of both genes is routinely conducted in patients with early-onset breast cancer. Besides mutations that clearly abolish protein function or are known to increase cancer risk, a large number of sequence variants of uncertain significance (VUS) have been identified. Although several functional assays for BRCA1 VUSs have been described, thus far it has not been possible to conduct a high-throughput analysis in the context of the full-length protein. We have developed a relatively fast and easy cDNA-based functional assay to classify BRCA1 VUSs based on their ability to functionally complement BRCA1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. Using this assay, we have analyzed 74 unclassified BRCA1 missense mutants for which all predicted pathogenic variants are confined to the BRCA1 RING and BRCT domains. SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1 VUSs are frequently found in patients with hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and present a serious problem for clinical geneticists. This article describes the generation, validation, and application of a reliable high-throughput assay for the functional classification of BRCA1 sequence variants of uncertain significance.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Spain is heterogeneous and varies according to geographical origin of studied families. The contribution of these mutations to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has not been previously investigated in Asturian populations (Northern Spain). METHODS: In the present work, 256 unrelated high-risk probands with breast and/or ovarian cancer from families living in Asturias were analyzed for the presence of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation from October 2007 to May 2012. The entire coding sequences and each intron/exon boundaries of BRCA1/2 genes were screened both by direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: A total of 59 families (23%) were found to carry a pathogenic germ line mutation, 39 in BRCA1 and 20 in BRCA2. Twenty nine additional families (12%) carried an unknown significance variant. We detected 28 distinct pathogenic mutations (16 in BRCA1 and 12 in BRCA2), of which 3 mutations in BRCA1 (c.1674delA, c.1965C>A and c.2900_2901dupCT) and 5 in BRCA2 (c.262_263delCT, c.2095C>T, c.3263dupC, c.4030_4035delinsC, c.8042_8043delCA) had not been previously described.The novel mutations c.2900_2901dupCT in BRCA1 and c.4030_4035delinsC in BRCA2 occurred in 8 and 6 families respectively and clustered in two separated small geographically isolated areas suggesting a founder effect. These 2 mutations, together with the Galician BRCA1 mutation c.211A>G (9 families), and the common BRCA1 mutation c.3331_3334delCAAG (6 families), account for approximately 50% of all affected families. By contrast, very frequent mutations in other Spanish series such as the BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutation c.68_69delAG, was found in only one family. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we report the BRCA1 and BRCA2 spectrum of mutations and their geographical distribution in Asturias, which largely differ from other areas of Spain. Our findings may help design a first step recurrent mutation panel for screening high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer families from this specific area.
Worldwide variation in the distribution of BRCA mutations is well recognised, and for the Moroccan population no comprehensive studies about BRCA mutation spectra or frequencies have been published. We therefore performed mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in 121 Moroccan women diagnosed with breast cancer. All cases completed epidemiology and family history questionnaires and provided a DNA sample for BRCA testing. Mutation analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the BRCA1 gene. 31.6 % (6/19) of familial cases and 1 % (1/102) of early-onset sporadic (< 45 years)were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. The pathogenic mutations included two frame-shift mutations (c.798_799delTT, c.1016dupA), one missense mutation (c.5095C>T),and one nonsense mutation (c.4942A>T). The c.798_799delTT mutation was also observed in Algerian and Tunisian BC families, suggesting the first non-Jewish founder mutation to be described in Northern Africa. In addition, ten different unclassified variants were detected in BRCA1, none of which were predicted to affect splicing. Most unclassified variants were placed in Align-GVGD classes suggesting neutrality. c.5117G>C involves a highly conserved amino acid suggestive of interfering with function (Align-GVGD class C55), but has been observed in conjunction with a deleterious mutation in a Tunisian family. These findings reflect the genetic heterogeneity of the Moroccan population and are relevant to genetic counselling and clinical management. The role of BRCA2 in BC is also under study.
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 confer an estimated lifetime risk of 56-80% for breast cancer and 15-60% for ovarian cancer. Since the mid 1990s when BRCA1 was identified, genetic testing has revealed over 1,500 unique germline variants. However, for a significant number of these variants, the effect on protein function is unknown making it difficult to infer the consequences on risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Thus, many individuals undergoing genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations receive test results reporting a variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), leading to issues in risk assessment, counseling, and preventive care. Here, we describe functional assays for BRCA1 to directly or indirectly assess the impact of a variant on protein conformation or function and how these results can be used to complement genetic data to classify a VUS as to its clinical significance. Importantly, these methods may provide a framework for genome-wide pathogenicity assignment.
The true prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCAs) germline mutations in sporadic breast or ovarian cancer (SBC/SOC) in Caucasian population is not well established. The aim of the study is to establish the prevalence of BRCAs mutations in SBC to ponder its relevance in the programs of genetic counseling in cancer and to explore the genotype-phenotype relationship of these particular breast cancers. The study was performed in 495 SBC. We sought 46 BRCA1 and 53 BRCA2 pathogenic mutations reported in the Spanish population. We followed a high resolution melting method performed in the LightCycler 480 (Roche Diagnostics) for the screening of these Spanish mutations using 49 primer pairs. Eight different deleterious mutations, one of them novel, were detected in nine patients, five without family history of BC/OC, what yields a true prevalence of 1.05% for BRCAs mutations in SBC. Furthermore, we found 18 unknown variants. Larger tumour size (T > 1) and earlier presentation are the independent parameters associated with the presence of BRCAs pathogenic mutations in SBC (P < 0.01) and the BRCA1 mutations carriers develop steroid-receptors negative tumors. Our results indicate that the true prevalence of BRCAs germline deleterious mutations in SBC of Spaniards is low. However, this does not lessens its relevance since the presence of BRCAs mutations in SBC could represent circa 16% of total BRCAs mutations detected in BC. SBCs of BRCAs mutation carriers have phenotype more aggressiveness than SBC without BRCAs mutation.
Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 breast cancer susceptibility gene account for a large proportion of hereditary breast cancer families and show considerable ethnic and geographical variations. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to hereditary breast cancer has not yet been thoroughly investigated in Middle Eastern and North African populations. In this study, 16 Tunisian high-risk breast cancer families were screened for germline mutations in the entire BRCA1 coding region and exon-intron boundaries using direct sequencing. Six families were found to carry BRCA1 mutations with a prevalence of 37.5%. Four different deleterious mutations were detected. Three truncating mutations were previously described: c.798_799delTT (916 delTT), c.3331_3334delCAAG (3450 delCAAG), c.5266dupC (5382 insC) and one splice site mutation which seems to be specific to the Tunisian population: c.212 + 2insG (IVS5 + 2insG). We also identified 15 variants of unknown clinical significance. The c.798_799delTT mutation occurred at an 18% frequency and was shared by three apparently unrelated families. Analyzing five microsatellite markers in and flanking the BRCA1 locus showed a common haplotype associated with this mutation. This suggests that the c.798_799delTT mutation is a Tunisian founder mutation. Our findings indicate that the Tunisian population has a spectrum of prevalent BRCA1 mutations, some of which appear as recurrent and founding mutations.
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations predispose heterozygous carriers to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. However, unclassified variants (UVs) (variants with unknown clinical significance) and missense polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes pose a problem in genetic counseling, as their impact on risk of breast and ovarian cancer is still unclear. The objective of our study was to identify UVs and missense polymorphisms in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer patients and relatives tested previously for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes germline mutations analysis. METHODS: We analyzed 101 DNA samples from 79 breast/ovarian cancer families. The approach used is based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence variants screening by SSCP or High-Resolution Melting (HRM) curve analysis followed by direct sequencing. In silico analyses have been performed using different bioinformatics programs to individualize genetics variations that can disrupt the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes function. RESULTS: Among 80 UVs and polymorphisms detected in BRCA1/2 genes (33 BRCA1 and 47 BRCA2), 31 were new UVs (10 BRCA1 and 21 BRCA2), 7 were rare UVs (4 BRCA1 and 3 BRCA2) and 42 were polymorphic variants (19 BRCA1 and 23 BRCA2). Moreover, 8 new missense UVs identified in this study: two BRCA1 (c.4066C>A/p.Gln1356Lys, c.4901G>T/p.Arg1634Met) located respectively in exons 11 and 16, and six BRCA2 (c.1099G>A/p.Asp367Asn, c.2636C>A/p.Ser879Tyr, c.3868T>A/p.Cys1290Ser, c.5428G>T/p.Val1810Phe, c.6346C>G/p.His2116Asp and c.9256G>A/p.Gly3086Arg) located respectively in exons 10, 11 and 24, show a damaging PSIC score yielded by PolyPhen2 program and could be pathogenic. In addition, 5 new BRCA} missense UVs out of six that were found to be damaging by PolyPhen2 program, also were deleterious according to SIFT program. The rare BRCA1 UV c.5332G>A/p.Asp1778Asn was found here for the first time in co-occurrence in trans with the deleterious BRCA1 mutation c.798_799delTT/p.Ser267LysfsX19 in young breast cancer patient. Moreover, 10 new identified intronic variants with unknown clinical significance (3 BRCA1 and 7 BRCA2) in the present study, could be considered as benign, because GeneSplicer, SpliceSiteFinder and MaxEntScan prediction programs show no splice site alteration for these variants. Several missense polymorphisms of BRCA1 c.2612C>T/p.Pro871Leu, c.3548A>G/p.Lys1183Arg, c.4837A>G/p.Ser1613Gly and BRCA2 c.865A>C/p.Asn289His, c.1114A>C/p.Asn372His, c.2971A>G/p.Asn991Asp, c.7150C>A/p.Gly2384Lys have been identified with high frequency in patients who were tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. These missense polymorphisms could have a role as susceptibility breast cancer markers in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer families where pathological BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were not present. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, UVs and missense polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer families. Evaluation of breast/ovarian cancer risk induced by the eight new missense UVs and common polymorphisms detected in our present work is on going in a larger study.
Clinical mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the presence of germline inactivating mutations is used to identify individuals at elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Variants identified during screening are usually classified as pathogenic (increased risk of cancer) or not pathogenic (no increased risk of cancer). However, a significant proportion of genetic tests yields variants of uncertain significance (VUS) that have undefined risk of cancer. Individuals carrying these VUS cannot benefit from individualized cancer risk assessment. Recently, a quantitative "posterior probability model" for assessing the clinical relevance of VUS in BRCA1 or BRCA2, which integrates multiple forms of genetic evidence has been developed. Here, we provide a detailed review of this model. We describe the components of the model and explain how these can be combined to calculate a posterior probability of pathogenicity for each VUS. We explain how the model can be applied to public data and provide tables that list the VUS that have been classified as not pathogenic or pathogenic using this method. While we use BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS as examples, the method can be used as a framework for classification of the pathogenicity of VUS in other cancer genes.
BACKGROUND: Besides revealing cancer predisposition variants or the absence of any changes, genetic testing for cancer predisposition genes can also identify variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Classifying VUSs is a pressing problem, as ever more patients seek genetic testing for disease syndromes and receive noninformative results from those tests. In cases such as the breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in which prophylactic options can be severe and life changing, having information on the disease relevance of the VUS that a patient harbors can be critical. METHODS: We describe a computational approach for inferring the disease relevance of VUSs in disease genes from data derived from an in vitro functional assay. It is based on a Bayesian hierarchical model that accounts for sources of experimental heterogeneity. RESULTS: The functional data correlate well with the pathogenicity of BRCA1 BRCT VUSs, thus providing evidence regarding pathogenicity when family and genetic data are absent or uninformative. CONCLUSIONS: We show the utility of the model by using it to classify 76 VUSs located in the BRCT region of BRCA1. The approach is both sensitive and specific when evaluated on variants previously classified using independent sources of data. Although the functional data are very informative, they will need to be combined with other forms of data to meet the more stringent requirements of clinical application. IMPACT: Our work will lead to improved classification of VUSs and will aid in the clinical decision making of their carriers.
Genetic screening of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 has uncovered a large number of variants of uncertain clinical significance. Here, we use biochemical and cell-based transcriptional assays to assess the structural and functional defects associated with a large set of 117 distinct BRCA1 missense variants within the essential BRCT domain of the BRCA1 protein that have been documented in individuals with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. In the first method, we used limited proteolysis to assess the protein folding stability of each of the mutants compared with the wild-type. In the second method, we used a phosphopeptide pull-down assay to assess the ability of each of the variants to specifically interact with a peptide containing a pSer-X-X-Phe motif, a known functional target of the BRCA1 BRCT domain. Finally, we used transcriptional assays to assess the ability of each BRCT variant to act as a transcriptional activation domain in human cells. Through a correlation of the assay results with available family history and clinical data, we define limits to predict the disease risk associated with each variant. Forty-two of the variants show little effect on function and are likely to represent variants with little or no clinical significance; 50 display a clear functional effect and are likely to represent pathogenic variants; and the remaining 25 variants display intermediate activities. The excellent agreement between the structure/function effects of these mutations and available clinical data supports the notion that functional and structure information can be useful in the development of models to assess cancer risk.
Breast cancer rates and median age of onset differ between Western Europe and North Africa. In Western populations, 5 to 10 % of breast cancer cases can be attributed to major genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, while this attribution is not yet well defined among Africans. To help determine the contribution of BRCA1 mutations to breast cancer in a North African population, we analysed genomic DNA from breast cancer cases ascertained in Algiers. Both familial cases (at least three breast cancers in the same familial branch, or two with one bilateral or diagnosed before age 40) and sporadic cases less than 38 years of age were studied. Complete sequencing plus quantitative analysis of the BRCA1 gene was performed. 9.8 % (5/51) of early-onset sporadic and 36.4 % (4/11) of familial cases were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. This is in contrast 10.3 % of French HBOC families exhibiting a BRCA1 mutation. One mutation, c.798_799delTT, was observed in two Algerian families and in two families from Tunisia, suggesting a North African founder allele. Algerian non-BRCA1 tumors were of significantly higher grade than French non-BRCA tumors, and the age at diagnosis for Algerian familial cases was much younger than that for French non-BRCA familial cases. In conclusion, we observed a much higher frequency of BRCA1 mutations among young breast cancer patients than observed in Europe, suggesting biological differences and that the inclusion criterea for analysis in Western Europe may not be applicable for the Northern African population.
The functional consequences of missense variants in disease genes are difficult to predict. We assessed if gene expression profiles could distinguish between BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic truncating and missense mutation carriers and familial breast cancer cases whose disease was not attributable to BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (BRCAX cases). 72 cell lines from affected women in high-risk breast ovarian families were assayed after exposure to ionising irradiation, including 23 BRCA1 carriers, 22 BRCA2 carriers, and 27 BRCAX individuals. A subset of 10 BRCAX individuals carried rare BRCA1/2 sequence variants considered to be of low clinical significance (LCS). BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had similar expression profiles, with some subclustering of missense mutation carriers. The majority of BRCAX individuals formed a distinct cluster, but BRCAX individuals with LCS variants had expression profiles similar to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Gaussian Process Classifier predicted BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX status, with a maximum of 62% accuracy, and prediction accuracy decreased with inclusion of BRCAX samples carrying an LCS variant, and inclusion of pathogenic missense carriers. Similarly, prediction of mutation status with gene lists derived using Support Vector Machines was good for BRCAX samples without an LCS variant (82-94%), poor for BRCAX with an LCS (40-50%), and improved for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when the gene list used for prediction was appropriate to mutation effect being tested (71-100%). This study indicates that mutation effect, and presence of rare variants possibly associated with a low risk of cancer, must be considered in the development of array-based assays of variant pathogenicity.
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of BRCA1 missense sequence variants remain uncharacterized for their possible effect on protein expression and function, and therefore are unclassified in terms of their pathogenicity. BRCA1 plays diverse cellular roles and it is unlikely that any single functional assay will accurately reflect the total cellular implications of missense mutations in this gene. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of two BRCA1 variants, 5236G>C (G1706A) and 5242C>A (A1708E) on BRCA1 function, and to survey the relative usefulness of several assays to direct the characterisation of other unclassified variants in BRCA genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a range of bioinformatic, genetic, and histopathological analyses, and in vitro functional assays indicated that the 1708E variant was associated with the disruption of different cellular functions of BRCA1. In transient transfection experiments in T47D and 293T cells, the 1708E product was mislocalised to the cytoplasm and induced centrosome amplification in 293T cells. The 1708E variant also failed to transactivate transcription of reporter constructs in mammalian transcriptional transactivation assays. In contrast, the 1706A variant displayed a phenotype comparable to wildtype BRCA1 in these assays. Consistent with functional data, tumours from 1708E carriers showed typical BRCA1 pathology, while tumour material from 1706A carriers displayed few histopathological features associated with BRCA1 related tumours. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive range of genetic, bioinformatic, and functional analyses have been combined for the characterisation of BRCA1 unclassified sequence variants. Consistent with the functional analyses, the combined odds of causality calculated for the 1706A variant after multifactorial likelihood analysis (1:142) indicates a definitive classification of this variant as "benign". In contrast, functional assays of the 1708E variant indicate that it is pathogenic, possibly through subcellular mislocalisation. However, the combined odds of 262:1 in favour of causality of this variant does not meet the minimal ratio of 1000:1 for classification as pathogenic, and A1708E remains formally designated as unclassified. Our findings highlight the importance of comprehensive genetic information, together with detailed functional analysis for the definitive categorisation of unclassified sequence variants. This combination of analyses may have direct application to the characterisation of other unclassified variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2.
This work describes an approach to characterize the clinical significance of genetic variants detected during the genetic testing of BRCA1 in patients from hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families. Results from transgenic mice and extensive clinical testing support the hypothesis that biallelic BRCA1 mutations result in embryonic lethality. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that variants of uncertain clinical significance found to reside in trans with known deleterious mutations impart reduced risk for cancer. This approach was applied to a large data set of 55,630 patients who underwent clinical BRCA1 screening by whole gene direct DNA sequencing. Fourteen common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to assign 10 previously defined common, recurrent, or canonical haplotypes in 99% of these cases. From a total of 1,477 genetic variants detected in these patients, excluding haplotype-tagging SNPs, 877 (59%) could be unambiguously assigned to one or more haplotypes. In 41 instances, variants previously classified as being of uncertain clinical significance, mostly missense variants, were excluded as fully penetrant mutations due to their coincidence in trans with known deleterious mutations. From a total of 1,150 patients that harbored these 41 variants, 956 carried one as the sole variant of uncertain clinical significance reported. This approach could have widespread application to other disease genes where compound heterozygous mutations are incompatible with life or result in obvious phenotypes. This largely computational technique is advantageous because it relies upon existing clinical data and is likely to prove informative for prevalent genetic variants in large data sets.
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 is a tumour suppressor with pleiotropic actions. Germline mutations in BRCA1 are responsible for a large proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families. Several missense variants have been identified throughout the gene but because of lack of information about their impact on the function of BRCA1, predictive testing is not always informative. Classification of missense variants into deleterious/high risk or neutral/low clinical significance is essential to identify individuals at risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a panel of missense variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The panel was investigated in a comprehensive framework that included (1) a functional assay based on transcription activation; (2) segregation analysis and a method of using incomplete pedigree data to calculate the odds of causality; (3) a method based on interspecific sequence variation. It was shown that the transcriptional activation assay could be used as a test to characterise mutations in the carboxy-terminus region of BRCA1 encompassing residues 1396-1863. Thirteen missense variants (H1402Y, L1407P, H1421Y, S1512I, M1628T, M1628V, T1685I, G1706A, T1720A, A1752P, G1788V, V1809F, and W1837R) were specifically investigated. CONCLUSIONS: While individual classification schemes for BRCA1 alleles still present limitations, a combination of several methods provides a more powerful way of identifying variants that are causally linked to a high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The framework presented here brings these variants nearer to clinical applicability.
INTRODUCTION: Interpretation of results from mutation screening of tumour suppressor genes known to harbour high risk susceptibility mutations, such as APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, TP53, and PTEN, is becoming an increasingly important part of clinical practice. Interpretation of truncating mutations, gene rearrangements, and obvious splice junction mutations, is generally straightforward. However, classification of missense variants often presents a difficult problem. From a series of 20,000 full sequence tests of BRCA1 carried out at Myriad Genetic Laboratories, a total of 314 different missense changes and eight in-frame deletions were observed. Before this study, only 21 of these missense changes were classified as deleterious or suspected deleterious and 14 as neutral or of little clinical significance. METHODS: We have used a combination of a multiple sequence alignment of orthologous BRCA1 sequences and a measure of the chemical difference between the amino acids present at individual residues in the sequence alignment to classify missense variants and in-frame deletions detected during mutation screening of BRCA1. RESULTS: In the present analysis we were able to classify an additional 50 missense variants and two in-frame deletions as probably deleterious and 92 missense variants as probably neutral. Thus we have tentatively classified about 50% of the unclassified missense variants observed during clinical testing of BRCA1. DISCUSSION: An internal test of the analysis is consistent with our classification of the variants designated probably deleterious; however, we must stress that this classification is tentative and does not have sufficient independent confirmation to serve as a clinically applicable stand alone method.
The BRCA1 gene from individuals at risk of breast and ovarian cancers can be screened for the presence of mutations. However, the cancer association of most alleles carrying missense mutations is unknown, thus creating significant problems for genetic counseling. To increase our ability to identify cancer-associated mutations in BRCA1, we set out to use the principles of protein three-dimensional structure as well as the correlation between the cancer-associated mutations and those that abolish transcriptional activation. Thirty-one of 37 missense mutations of known impact on the transcriptional activation function of BRCA1 are readily rationalized in structural terms. Loss-of-function mutations involve nonconservative changes in the core of the BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) fold or are localized in a groove that presumably forms a binding site involved in the transcriptional activation by BRCA1; mutations that do not abolish transcriptional activation are either conservative changes in the core or are on the surface outside of the putative binding site. Next, structure-based rules for predicting functional consequences of a given missense mutation were applied to 57 germ-line BRCA1 variants of unknown cancer association. Such a structure-based approach may be helpful in an integrated effort to identify mutations that predispose individuals to cancer.
Germ-line mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a large proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families. A large number of disease-causing germ-line mutations and variants of unknown pathological significance have been identified in both genes. The majority of these variants have been studied only in genomic DNA and their effects at the mRNA level have not been reported. Our aim was to ascertain the pathological effect of six BRCA1 and two BRCA2 sequence unclassified variants by RNA analysis. Three of the BRCA1 variants are novel: IVS18+5G>A, IVS20-6_IVS20-4del and IVS22-2A>G. Three BRCA1 mutations showed aberrant splicing: Ala1693del, IVS18+5G>A and IVS22-2A>G. The variants G1706A, S1715N and IVS20-6_IVS20-4del in BRCA1, and T2515I and IVS25+9A>C in BRCA2 led to normal transcripts. We compared these RNA results with those obtained from two theoretical splicing prediction methods. The consensus values for the splice sequences (Shapiro and Senapathy 1987) involved in three of the BRCA1 splicing site variants agreed with the RNA results, lending support to the validity of this model. Moreover, we used previously established exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) sequences to ascertain whether the four exonic variants studied fell within predicted ESE motifs and whether they would disrupt ESE functions. Our results suggest that the splicing predictions based on this method are not definitive and should be considered with caution. This work highlights the importance of studying mutations at DNA and RNA levels in order to clarify their pathological effect. This information is essential for providing efficient counseling for breast/ovarian cancer families.
We screened index cases from 410 Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families and 214 patients (19 of them males) with breast cancer for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, using SSCP, PTT, CSGE, DGGE, and direct sequencing. We identified 60 mutations in BRCA1 and 53 in BRCA2. Of the 53 distinct mutations observed, 11 are novel and 12 have been reported only in Spanish families (41.5%). The prevalence of mutations in this set of families was 26.3%, but the percentage was higher in the families with breast and ovarian cancer (52.1%). The lowest proportion of mutations was found in the site-specific female breast cancer families (15.4%). Of the families with male breast cancer cases, 59.1% presented mutations in the BRCA2 gene. We found a higher frequency of ovarian cancer associated with mutations localized in the 5' end of the BRCA1 gene, but there was no association between the prevalence of this type of cancer and mutations situated in the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) region of exon 11 of the BRCA2 gene. The mutations 187_188delAG, 330A>G, 5236G>A, 5242C>A, and 589_590del (numbered after GenBank U14680) account for 46.6% of BRCA1 detected mutations whereas 3036_3039del, 6857_6858del, 9254_9258del, and 9538_9539del (numbered after GenBank U43746) account for 56.6% of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 330A>G has a Galician origin (northwest Spain), and BRCA2 6857_6858del and 9254_9258del probably originated in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Knowledge of the spectrum of mutations and their geographical distribution in Spain will allow a more effective detection strategy in countries with large Spanish populations.
The BRCA1 C-terminal region contains a duplicated globular domain termed BRCT that is found within many DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint proteins. The unique diversity of this domain superfamily allows BRCT modules to interact forming homo/hetero BRCT multimers, BRCT-non-BRCT interactions, and interactions with DNA strand breaks. The sequence and functional diversity of the BRCT superfamily suggests that BRCT domains are evolutionarily convenient interaction modules.
BRCA1 germline mutations increase the lifetime risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. However, taking into account the differences in disease manifestation among mutation carriers, it is probable that different BRCA1 mutations have distinct haploinsufficiency effects and lead to the formation of different phenotypes. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from heterozygous BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers, we investigated the haploinsufficiency effects of various mutation types using qPCR, immunofluorescence, and microarray technology. Lymphoblastoid cell lines carrying a truncating mutation showed significantly lower BRCA1 mRNA and protein levels and higher levels of gamma-H2AX than control cells or those harboring a missense mutation, indicating greater spontaneous DNA damage. Cells carrying either BRCA1 mutation type showed impaired RAD51 foci formation, suggesting defective repair in mutated cells. Moreover, compared to controls, cell lines carrying missense mutations displayed a more distinct expression profile than cells with truncating mutations, which is consistent with different mutations giving rise to distinct phenotypes. Alterations in the immune response pathway in cells harboring missense mutations point to possible mechanisms of breast cancer initiation in carriers of these mutations. Our findings offer insight into how various heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 could lead to impairment of BRCA1 function and provide strong evidence of haploinsufficiency in BRCA1 mutation carriers.
UNLABELLED: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers, and therefore sequence analysis of both genes is routinely conducted in patients with early-onset breast cancer. Besides mutations that clearly abolish protein function or are known to increase cancer risk, a large number of sequence variants of uncertain significance (VUS) have been identified. Although several functional assays for BRCA1 VUSs have been described, thus far it has not been possible to conduct a high-throughput analysis in the context of the full-length protein. We have developed a relatively fast and easy cDNA-based functional assay to classify BRCA1 VUSs based on their ability to functionally complement BRCA1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. Using this assay, we have analyzed 74 unclassified BRCA1 missense mutants for which all predicted pathogenic variants are confined to the BRCA1 RING and BRCT domains. SIGNIFICANCE: BRCA1 VUSs are frequently found in patients with hereditary breast or ovarian cancer and present a serious problem for clinical geneticists. This article describes the generation, validation, and application of a reliable high-throughput assay for the functional classification of BRCA1 sequence variants of uncertain significance.
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 confer an estimated lifetime risk of 56-80% for breast cancer and 15-60% for ovarian cancer. Since the mid 1990s when BRCA1 was identified, genetic testing has revealed over 1,500 unique germline variants. However, for a significant number of these variants, the effect on protein function is unknown making it difficult to infer the consequences on risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Thus, many individuals undergoing genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations receive test results reporting a variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), leading to issues in risk assessment, counseling, and preventive care. Here, we describe functional assays for BRCA1 to directly or indirectly assess the impact of a variant on protein conformation or function and how these results can be used to complement genetic data to classify a VUS as to its clinical significance. Importantly, these methods may provide a framework for genome-wide pathogenicity assignment.
Clinical mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the presence of germline inactivating mutations is used to identify individuals at elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Variants identified during screening are usually classified as pathogenic (increased risk of cancer) or not pathogenic (no increased risk of cancer). However, a significant proportion of genetic tests yields variants of uncertain significance (VUS) that have undefined risk of cancer. Individuals carrying these VUS cannot benefit from individualized cancer risk assessment. Recently, a quantitative "posterior probability model" for assessing the clinical relevance of VUS in BRCA1 or BRCA2, which integrates multiple forms of genetic evidence has been developed. Here, we provide a detailed review of this model. We describe the components of the model and explain how these can be combined to calculate a posterior probability of pathogenicity for each VUS. We explain how the model can be applied to public data and provide tables that list the VUS that have been classified as not pathogenic or pathogenic using this method. While we use BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS as examples, the method can be used as a framework for classification of the pathogenicity of VUS in other cancer genes.
BACKGROUND: Besides revealing cancer predisposition variants or the absence of any changes, genetic testing for cancer predisposition genes can also identify variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUS). Classifying VUSs is a pressing problem, as ever more patients seek genetic testing for disease syndromes and receive noninformative results from those tests. In cases such as the breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in which prophylactic options can be severe and life changing, having information on the disease relevance of the VUS that a patient harbors can be critical. METHODS: We describe a computational approach for inferring the disease relevance of VUSs in disease genes from data derived from an in vitro functional assay. It is based on a Bayesian hierarchical model that accounts for sources of experimental heterogeneity. RESULTS: The functional data correlate well with the pathogenicity of BRCA1 BRCT VUSs, thus providing evidence regarding pathogenicity when family and genetic data are absent or uninformative. CONCLUSIONS: We show the utility of the model by using it to classify 76 VUSs located in the BRCT region of BRCA1. The approach is both sensitive and specific when evaluated on variants previously classified using independent sources of data. Although the functional data are very informative, they will need to be combined with other forms of data to meet the more stringent requirements of clinical application. IMPACT: Our work will lead to improved classification of VUSs and will aid in the clinical decision making of their carriers.
A few founder BRCA1 mutations (5382insC, 4154delA, 185delAG) account for up to 15% of high-risk (young-onset or familial or bilateral) breast cancer (BC) cases in Russia. The impact of non-founder BRCA1 mutations in this country is less studied; in particular, there are no reports analyzing gross rearrangements of this gene in the Russian patient series. We selected for the study 95 founder mutation negative high-risk BC cases. Combination of high-resolution melting (HRM) and sequencing revealed six presumably BC-associated alleles (2080delA, 4808C>G, 5214C>T, 5236G>A, 5460G>T, 5622C>T) and one variant of an unknown significance (4885G>A). The pathogenic role of the 5236G>A mutation leading to G1706E substitution was further confirmed by the loss of heterozygosity analysis of the corresponding tumor tissue. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) revealed two additional BRCA1 heterozygotes, which carried BRCA1 deletions involving exons 1-2 and 3-7, respectively. Based on the results of this investigation and the review of prior Russian studies, three BRCA1 mutations (2080delA, 3819del5, 3875del4) were considered with respect to their possible founder effect and tested in the additional series of 210 high-risk BC patients; two BRCA heterozygotes (2080delA and 3819del5) were revealed. We conclude that the non-founder mutations constitute the minority of BRCA1 defects in Russia.
High-resolution melting (HRM) of DNA is a versatile method for mutation scanning that monitors the fluorescence of double-strand DNA with saturating dye. Performing HRM on a real-time thermocycler enables semiquantitative analysis (quantitative polymerase chain reaction, qPCR) to be associated to HRM analysis for detection of both large gene rearrangements and point mutations (qPCR-HRM). We evaluated this method of mutation screening for the two major breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Screening of these two genes is time-consuming and must include exploration of large rearrangements that represent 5% to 15% of the alterations observed in these genes. To assess the reliability of the HRM technology, 201 known nucleotide variations scattered over all amplicons were tested. The sensitivity of qPCR was evaluated by analyzing seven large rearrangements. All previously identified variants tested were detected by qPCR-HRM. A retrospective study was done with 45 patients: qPCR-HRM allowed all the variants previously tested by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to be identified. qPCR analysis showed three cases of allele dropout (due to a 104-bp deletion, SNP primer mismatch, and an Alu insertion). A prospective study was done with 165 patients allowing 22 deleterious mutations, 16 unclassified variants, and 2 rearrangements to be detected. qPCR-HRM is a simple, sensitive, and fast method that does not require modified PCR primers. Thus, this method allows in one step the detection of point mutation, gene rearrangements, and prevention of missing a mutation due to primer mismatch.
Genetic screening of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 has uncovered a large number of variants of uncertain clinical significance. Here, we use biochemical and cell-based transcriptional assays to assess the structural and functional defects associated with a large set of 117 distinct BRCA1 missense variants within the essential BRCT domain of the BRCA1 protein that have been documented in individuals with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. In the first method, we used limited proteolysis to assess the protein folding stability of each of the mutants compared with the wild-type. In the second method, we used a phosphopeptide pull-down assay to assess the ability of each of the variants to specifically interact with a peptide containing a pSer-X-X-Phe motif, a known functional target of the BRCA1 BRCT domain. Finally, we used transcriptional assays to assess the ability of each BRCT variant to act as a transcriptional activation domain in human cells. Through a correlation of the assay results with available family history and clinical data, we define limits to predict the disease risk associated with each variant. Forty-two of the variants show little effect on function and are likely to represent variants with little or no clinical significance; 50 display a clear functional effect and are likely to represent pathogenic variants; and the remaining 25 variants display intermediate activities. The excellent agreement between the structure/function effects of these mutations and available clinical data supports the notion that functional and structure information can be useful in the development of models to assess cancer risk.
Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, and their identification allows genetic testing of at-risk relatives. However, estimates of these risks illustrate controversies, depending on the published series. The penetrance, the earlier onset of the disease and the effect of mutations on the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer were evaluated in 344 females belonging to 34 families from the Basque Country in Spain, in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were transmitted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to derive cumulative probability curves for breast and ovarian cancer by mutation status, birth cohort and mutation position, and significance of the differences was assessed using the log-rank test. The estimated probability for breast cancer by age 70 is about 64% in BRCA1 and 69% in BRCA2, whereas the probability of developing ovarian cancer is about 37% and 25% for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. There is a marginally significant higher risk of developing ovarian cancer in BRCA1 families than in BRCA2 families. The effect of birth cohort on breast cancer cumulative incidence presents an increased risk for females born after 1966 and a decreased risk for those born before 1940. There is no association between mutation position and breast cancer; however, ovarian cancer is associated to BRCA1, presenting exon 11 as an ovarian cluster. These results are important for the breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis and prevention in at-risk families.
Germline mutations that inactivate BRCA1 are responsible for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. One possible outcome of genetic testing for BRCA1 is the finding of a genetic variant of uncertain significance for which there is no information regarding its cancer association. This outcome leads to problems in risk assessment, counseling and preventive care. The purpose of the present study was to functionally evaluate seven unclassified variants of BRCA1 including a genomic deletion that leads to the in-frame loss of exons 16/17 (Delta exons 16/17) in the mRNA, an insertion that leads to a frameshift and an extended carboxy-terminus (5673insC), and five missense variants (K1487R, S1613C, M1652I, Q1826H and V1833M). We analyzed the variants using a functional assay based on the transcription activation property of BRCA1 combined with supervised learning computational models. Functional analysis indicated that variants S1613C, Q1826H, and M1652I are likely to be neutral, whereas variants V1833M, Delta exons 16/17, and 5673insC are likely to represent deleterious variants. In agreement with the functional analysis, the results of the computational analysis also indicated that the latter three variants are likely to be deleterious. Taken together, a combined approach of functional and bioinformatics analysis, plus structural modeling, can be utilized to obtain valuable information pertaining to the effect of a rare variant on the structure and function of BRCA1. Such information can, in turn, aid in the classification of BRCA1 variants for which there is a lack of genetic information needed to provide reliable risk assessment.
The prevalence of unique and recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations and unclassified variants varies among different populations. Two hundred and thirty-six breast and/or ovarian cancer patients were analysed to clarify the role of these genes in the Basque Country. We also studied 130 healthy women from the general population from the same region. Fifteen different pathological mutations were found in 16 index cases: 10 truncating mutations, 4 missense mutations and 1 splicing mutation. c.3002_3003insT and c.5788_5789delGT, both in exon 11 of BRCA2 have not previously been described. No pathological mutations were found in cases of sporadic juvenile breast cancer. There are no recurrent mutations in our population; apart from the mutation c.9254_9258del5, which appears in only two index cases. We have also found a lot of variants whose effect is unknown. From these variants, 17 have not previously been described: 6 missenses, 6 synonymous and 5 alterations in intronic regions. We would like to highlight the fact that 14.3% of patients with 3 or more cases of breast cancer in the family, and 16.7% of patients with family history of breast and ovarian cancer, present a pathological mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. This manuscript demonstrates that each population can have different mutations and due to this, Genetic Counselling and selection criteria must be different for each population. Furthermore, this article describes for the first time some new mutations and unclassified variants found in our population.
Mutation screening of the breast and ovarian cancer-predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is becoming an increasingly important part of clinical practice. Classification of rare nontruncating sequence variants in these genes is problematic, because it is not known whether these subtle changes alter function sufficiently to predispose cells to cancer development. Using data from the Myriad Genetic Laboratories database of nearly 70,000 full-sequence tests, we assessed the clinical significance of 1,433 sequence variants of unknown significance (VUSs) in the BRCA genes. Three independent measures were employed in the assessment: co-occurrence in trans of a VUS with known deleterious mutations; detailed analysis, by logistic regression, of personal and family history of cancer in VUS-carrying probands; and, in a subset of probands, an analysis of cosegregation with disease in pedigrees. For each of these factors, a likelihood ratio was computed under the hypothesis that the VUSs were equivalent to an "average" deleterious mutation, compared with neutral, with respect to risk. The likelihood ratios derived from each component were combined to provide an overall assessment for each VUS. A total of 133 VUSs had odds of at least 100 : 1 in favor of neutrality with respect to risk, whereas 43 had odds of at least 20 : 1 in favor of being deleterious. VUSs with evidence in favor of causality were those that were predicted to affect splicing, fell at positions that are highly conserved among BRCA orthologs, and were more likely to be located in specific domains of the proteins. In addition to their utility for improved genetics counseling of patients and their families, the global assessment reported here will be invaluable for validation of functional assays, structural models, and in silico analyses.
Classification of rare missense variants in disease susceptibility genes as neutral or disease-causing is important for genetic counseling. Different criteria are used to help classify such variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2; however, the strongest evidence tends to come from segregation analysis and observed cooccurrence with known pathogenic mutations, which both require information that is not readily available in most circumstances. A likelihood-based model has been developed, integrating most of the data currently used to classify these variants. We have adapted the original model, including only that information that could be more easily obtained from a cancer genetics laboratory, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH), grade, and immunohistochemical analysis to assess estrogen receptor (ER) status for the tumors of carriers of these variants. We also considered summary family history (personal or first-degree family history of bilateral breast or ovarian cancer), which was not incorporated into the original model. To test the ability of the modified model to classify missense variants in BRCA1, we analyzed 17 variants, of which 10 have previously been classified as pathogenic mutations or neutral polymorphisms. We also included a prior step consisting of the screening of the variants among 1,000 controls, with which we were able to classify five as neutral, based solely on their observed frequency. We found that combining this relatively easily collected information can be sufficient to classify variants as pathogenic or neutral if tumors from at least three carriers of the same variant can be collected and analyzed.
Germ line inactivating mutations in BRCA1 confer susceptibility for breast and ovarian cancer. However, the relevance of the many missense changes in the gene for which the effect on protein function is unknown remains unclear. Determination of which variants are causally associated with cancer is important for assessment of individual risk. We used a functional assay that measures the transactivation activity of BRCA1 in combination with analysis of protein modeling based on the structure of BRCA1 BRCT domains. In addition, the information generated was interpreted in light of genetic data. We determined the predicted cancer association of 22 BRCA1 variants and verified that the common polymorphism S1613G has no effect on BRCA1 function, even when combined with other rare variants. We estimated the specificity and sensitivity of the assay, and by meta-analysis of 47 variants, we show that variants with <45% of wild-type activity can be classified as deleterious whereas variants with >50% can be classified as neutral. In conclusion, we did functional and structure-based analyses on a large series of BRCA1 missense variants and defined a tentative threshold activity for the classification missense variants. By interpreting the validated functional data in light of additional clinical and structural evidence, we conclude that it is possible to classify all missense variants in the BRCA1 COOH-terminal region. These results bring functional assays for BRCA1 closer to clinical applicability.
A total of 264 unrelated breast/ovarian cancer patients and 45 healthy individuals with familial antecedents referred for genetic testing were scanned for germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and heteroduplex analysis by capillary array electrophoresis (HA-CAE). We detected 101 distinct mutations (41 in BRCA1 and 60 in BRCA2); ten of them have not been previously reported. These mutations were c.2411_2429dup19, c.2802_2805delCAAA and c.5294A>G (p.E1725E) of BRCA1; and c.667C>T (p.Q147X), c.2683C>T (p.Q819X), c.5344_5347delAATA, c.5578_5579delAA;insT, c.8260_8261insGA, c.744+14C>T and c.8099A>G (p.Y2624C) of BRCA2. Twenty-four different mutations, including seven of the new mutations (five frameshift and two nonsense), were classified as pathogenic. These 24 alterations were found in 39 families (12.6% of all families). A remarkable proportion of deleterious mutations were found in BRCA2: 25 families carried a mutation in BRCA2 (BRCA2+; 64.1%) compared with 14 families BRCA1+ (35.9%). The highest incidences of deleterious mutations were found in families with three or more cases of site-specific breast cancer (BC) (27.4%) and families with BC and ovarian cancer (22.2%). Finally, four recurrent mutations, 3036_3039delACAA, c.5374_5377delTATG of BRCA2, as well as c.5272-1G>A and c.5242C>A (p.A1708E) of BRCA1, accounted for 44% of all of the deleterious mutations.
Mutational analysis of large multiexon genes without prevalent mutations is a laborious undertaking that requires the use of a high-throughput scanning technique. The Human Genome Project has enabled the development of powerful techniques for mutation detection in large multiexon genes. We have transferred heteroduplex analysis (HA) by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis of the two major breast cancer (BC) predisposing genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, to a multicapillary DNA sequencer in order to increase the throughput of this technique. This new method that we have called heteroduplex analysis by capillary array electrophoresis (HA-CAE) is based on the use of multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), different fluorescent labels and HA in a 16-capillary DNA sequencer. To date, a total of 114 different DNA sequence variants (19 insertions/deletions and 95 single-nucleotide substitutions - SNS) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 from 431 unrelated BC families have been successfully detected by HA-CAE. In addition, we have optimized the multiplex-PCR conditions for the colorectal cancer genes MLH1 and MSH2 in order to analyze them by HA-CAE. Both genes have been amplified in 13 multiplex groups, which contain the 35 exons, and their corresponding flanking intronic sequences. MLH1 and MSH2 have been analyzed in nine hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients, and we have found six different DNA changes: one complex deletion/insertion mutation in MLH1 exon 19 and another five SNS. Only the complex mutation and one SNS may be classified as cancer-prone mutations. Our experience has revealed that HA-CAE is a simple, fast, reproducible and sensitive method to scan the sequences of complex genes.
INTRODUCTION: Interpretation of results from mutation screening of tumour suppressor genes known to harbour high risk susceptibility mutations, such as APC, BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, TP53, and PTEN, is becoming an increasingly important part of clinical practice. Interpretation of truncating mutations, gene rearrangements, and obvious splice junction mutations, is generally straightforward. However, classification of missense variants often presents a difficult problem. From a series of 20,000 full sequence tests of BRCA1 carried out at Myriad Genetic Laboratories, a total of 314 different missense changes and eight in-frame deletions were observed. Before this study, only 21 of these missense changes were classified as deleterious or suspected deleterious and 14 as neutral or of little clinical significance. METHODS: We have used a combination of a multiple sequence alignment of orthologous BRCA1 sequences and a measure of the chemical difference between the amino acids present at individual residues in the sequence alignment to classify missense variants and in-frame deletions detected during mutation screening of BRCA1. RESULTS: In the present analysis we were able to classify an additional 50 missense variants and two in-frame deletions as probably deleterious and 92 missense variants as probably neutral. Thus we have tentatively classified about 50% of the unclassified missense variants observed during clinical testing of BRCA1. DISCUSSION: An internal test of the analysis is consistent with our classification of the variants designated probably deleterious; however, we must stress that this classification is tentative and does not have sufficient independent confirmation to serve as a clinically applicable stand alone method.
The BRCA1 gene from individuals at risk of breast and ovarian cancers can be screened for the presence of mutations. However, the cancer association of most alleles carrying missense mutations is unknown, thus creating significant problems for genetic counseling. To increase our ability to identify cancer-associated mutations in BRCA1, we set out to use the principles of protein three-dimensional structure as well as the correlation between the cancer-associated mutations and those that abolish transcriptional activation. Thirty-one of 37 missense mutations of known impact on the transcriptional activation function of BRCA1 are readily rationalized in structural terms. Loss-of-function mutations involve nonconservative changes in the core of the BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) fold or are localized in a groove that presumably forms a binding site involved in the transcriptional activation by BRCA1; mutations that do not abolish transcriptional activation are either conservative changes in the core or are on the surface outside of the putative binding site. Next, structure-based rules for predicting functional consequences of a given missense mutation were applied to 57 germ-line BRCA1 variants of unknown cancer association. Such a structure-based approach may be helpful in an integrated effort to identify mutations that predispose individuals to cancer.
BACKGROUND: Scanning for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a large number of samples is hampered by the large sizes of these genes and the scattering of mutations throughout their coding sequences. Automated capillary electrophoresis has been shown to be a powerful system to detect mutations by either single-strand conformation polymorphism or heteroduplex analysis (HA). METHODS: We investigated the adaptation of gel-based HA of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to a fluorescent multicapillary platform to increase the throughput of this technique. We combined multiplex PCR, three different fluorescent labels, and HA in a 16-capillary DNA sequencer and tested 57 DNA sequence variants (11 insertions/deletions and 46 single-nucleotide changes) of BRCA1 and BRCA2. RESULTS: We detected all 57 DNA changes in a blinded assay, and 2 additional single-nucleotide substitutions (1186 A>G of BRCA1 and 3624 A>G of BRCA2), previously unresolved by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, different DNA changes in the same PCR fragment could be distinguished by their peak patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Capillary-based HA is a fast, efficient, and sensitive method that considerably reduces the amount of "hands-on" time for each sample. By this approach, the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 from two breast cancer patients can be scanned in a single run of 90 min.
Germ-line mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a large proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families. A large number of disease-causing germ-line mutations and variants of unknown pathological significance have been identified in both genes. The majority of these variants have been studied only in genomic DNA and their effects at the mRNA level have not been reported. Our aim was to ascertain the pathological effect of six BRCA1 and two BRCA2 sequence unclassified variants by RNA analysis. Three of the BRCA1 variants are novel: IVS18+5G>A, IVS20-6_IVS20-4del and IVS22-2A>G. Three BRCA1 mutations showed aberrant splicing: Ala1693del, IVS18+5G>A and IVS22-2A>G. The variants G1706A, S1715N and IVS20-6_IVS20-4del in BRCA1, and T2515I and IVS25+9A>C in BRCA2 led to normal transcripts. We compared these RNA results with those obtained from two theoretical splicing prediction methods. The consensus values for the splice sequences (Shapiro and Senapathy 1987) involved in three of the BRCA1 splicing site variants agreed with the RNA results, lending support to the validity of this model. Moreover, we used previously established exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) sequences to ascertain whether the four exonic variants studied fell within predicted ESE motifs and whether they would disrupt ESE functions. Our results suggest that the splicing predictions based on this method are not definitive and should be considered with caution. This work highlights the importance of studying mutations at DNA and RNA levels in order to clarify their pathological effect. This information is essential for providing efficient counseling for breast/ovarian cancer families.
We screened index cases from 410 Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families and 214 patients (19 of them males) with breast cancer for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, using SSCP, PTT, CSGE, DGGE, and direct sequencing. We identified 60 mutations in BRCA1 and 53 in BRCA2. Of the 53 distinct mutations observed, 11 are novel and 12 have been reported only in Spanish families (41.5%). The prevalence of mutations in this set of families was 26.3%, but the percentage was higher in the families with breast and ovarian cancer (52.1%). The lowest proportion of mutations was found in the site-specific female breast cancer families (15.4%). Of the families with male breast cancer cases, 59.1% presented mutations in the BRCA2 gene. We found a higher frequency of ovarian cancer associated with mutations localized in the 5' end of the BRCA1 gene, but there was no association between the prevalence of this type of cancer and mutations situated in the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR) region of exon 11 of the BRCA2 gene. The mutations 187_188delAG, 330A>G, 5236G>A, 5242C>A, and 589_590del (numbered after GenBank U14680) account for 46.6% of BRCA1 detected mutations whereas 3036_3039del, 6857_6858del, 9254_9258del, and 9538_9539del (numbered after GenBank U43746) account for 56.6% of the BRCA2 mutations. The BRCA1 330A>G has a Galician origin (northwest Spain), and BRCA2 6857_6858del and 9254_9258del probably originated in Catalonia (northeast Spain). Knowledge of the spectrum of mutations and their geographical distribution in Spain will allow a more effective detection strategy in countries with large Spanish populations.
The BRCA1 gene is included in a 200-400 kb region that is subjected to a recombination suppression mechanism; this region shows nearly complete linkage disequilibrium for a series of common biallelic polymorphisms, all of them with rarer allele frequency close to 0.4. These series of SNPs define two major haplotypes designated as class I and class II. In the present study, we have determined haplotype classes in the index case of 106 breast/ovarian cancer families previously screened for mutations in the BRCA genes and we have found that haplotype II (the less frequent in the control population) is over-represented among chromosomes harbouring mutations in BRCA1. In addition, we have defined a subtype of chromosomes characterized by haplotype I and one specific allele for the microsatellite marker D17S855, which are also more frequently associated with BRCA1 mutations. These findings may have important consequences for the selection of families with higher probabilities of carrying mutations in the BRCA1 gene.
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 5-10% of breast cancers have an hereditary origin, germline mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes causing a predisposition. In the present study we analyzed BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in moderate to high risk breast cancer patients in order to find out the types and frequency of these mutations in the Spanish regional community of Castilla y León. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We studied 207 moderate to high risk patients from 153 selected families. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplexes-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (multiplex PCR-HA-CSGE). All variants detected were sequenced to further verify the mutation. RESULTS: 45 alterations (23 in BRCA1 and 22 in BRCA2) were identified in 74 families (48.4%), corresponding to 13 polymorphisms (29 families), 19 unclassified variants (26 families) of which 9 have not been previously described and 13 cancer-prone mutations (19 families; 12.42% of all families). Eight out of the 19 deleterious mutations (42.1%) were detected in the BRCA1 gene and 11 (57.9%) in the BRCA2 gene. The most prevalent mutation was 3036delACAA, which was detected in four unrelated families. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of mutations, polymorphisms and unclassified variants we have detected may be the result of the sensitive procedure and the risk selection criteria used in this study. There is a high proportion of unclassified variants. Their role in the disease must be clarified through more studies, including their typing in control samples.

Literature for similar variants in homologous proteins

There is no literature available for variants in a homologous proteins

corona.ai classification

Classification: benign according to VKGL

This variant was found in the VKGL dataset. According to this authoritative source this variant is classified as benign. A prediction is available for this variant, but this source takes precedence in our classification.

corona.ai prediction details

Prediction: benign 42%

The Gly1706Ala mutation in the protein has been classified as benign by our ensemble classifier system, with baseline confidence. There is a 73% agreement between all subclassifiers.

Data quality

Data quality for this region is considered good. This means that enhanced, deep alignments are present and there is a variety of data for the algorithm to predict from.

Prediction factors

External models have estimated which sets of features contributed primarily to the classification. These sets of features are listed here.

Primary contributing factors

  • Structural features point towards benign
  • Alignment depth features point towards pathogenic
  • Protein evolutionary pressure points towards pathogenic
  • Residue differences point towards pathogenic

Evolutionary pressure

Conservation

The wildtype was observed in 85.67% of the 1047 sequences analyzed. The variant type was observed in 13.94% of observed sequences.


This residue is involved in 2 Hydrogen Bonds, 4 Hydrophobic interactions.

Interaction statistics were calculated using advanced molecular optimization techniques and may not be visible in the plain PDB file. Please download the YASARA scene to explore the interactions in more detail.